India: Mumbai Metro Line 5


Category A


USD186.57 million


April 21, 2020
September 28, 2023


The Project’s objective is to increase transport capacity and provide a green, fast, and accessible metro system for passengers.


The Project will finance rolling stock, signaling and telecommunications, platform screen doors, and automatic fare collection for the entire Mumbai Metro Line 5 (also referred to as Thane-Bhiwandi-Kalyan Line; a 24.45 km-long elevated metro rail system) and the civil works, traction and power supply, electrical and mechanical for stations and depot, depot machinery and plant, and consulting services for the first section of Mumbai Metro Line 5 (Thane to Bhiwandi), composed of six (6) stations. The Project is part of a larger Program, aiming to finance the civil works, rolling stock and metro systems, and consulting services for the entire Mumbai Metro Line 5 (Thane to Kalyan).


Applicable Policy and Standards. AIIB’s Environmental and Social Policy (ESP), including Environmental and Social Standards (ESSs) and the Environmental and Social Exclusion List (ESEL) will apply to this Project. ESS 1 (Environmental and Social Assessment and Management) and ESS 2 (Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement) will apply to this Project. ESS 3 (Indigenous Peoples) is not applicable to the Project. The Project has been assigned as Category A since the civil works related Project environmental and social (ES) risks and impacts, to be financed by MMRDA, are significant. The proposed Project is Co-financed with OPEC Fund.

E&S Instruments. An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been prepared for the Project including an Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) and a Social Impact Assessment (SIA) / Resettlement Plan (RP). Construction works of the Project commenced in August 2019 and 84.09% of civil works are completed (as of 31 January 2024). For the already completed sections of the civil works component, an Environmental and Social Due Diligence (ESDD) was conducted and recommendations in the form of an Environmental and Social Corrective Action Plan (ESCAP) was prepared and agreed with the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA).

Environmental Risks and Impacts. Majority of the Project alignment runs along the median of existing highway (90%), and the depot area is sited partly on public and mostly private land. Construction-related environmental impacts are temporary and typical of metro rail projects. These include but are not limited to air emission; noise and vibration from construction vehicles and equipment; disposal of large quantities of construction waste; generation of solid and hazardous waste; and wastewater from construction camps and construction sites among others. Operation phase impacts include, but are not limited to, use of hazardous materials; generation of solid, non-hazardous, and hazardous waste; and discharge of domestic wastewater and wastewater from maintenance and refurbishment. Generation of noise and vibration are key impacts for rail operations in general. A noise and vibration impact assessment will be initiated by MMRDA, with AIIB input in TOR, and impact compensation measures to be agreed with MMRDA. Mitigation measures to address the environmental impacts are in the Environmental Management Plan (EMP).

Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement. Land acquisition is not required for the AIIB financed component as it includes the technology installation and rolling stock. The MMRDA financed component (civil works), on the other hand, will involve public and private land acquisition (8.2 ha and 27.2 ha respectively), physical and economic displacement (108 residential structures and 184 commercial structures). MMRDA has prepared a Social Impact Assessment (SIA) / Resettlement Plan (RP) for the entire Project including the AIIB financed component and has been reviewed by the Project team to bring the SIA/RP in compliance with AIIB’s ESP. An ESDD accompanied by an Environmental and Social Corrective Action Plan (ESCAP) has been prepared to improve the ES performance of the civil works coming under the MMRDA financed component as well as any legacy issues identified.

Gender Aspects. A Gender Equality and Social Inclusion (GESI) framework has been developed for the Project. The GESI provides a range of activities which are integrated within the Project design and include: (i) gender responsive and socially inclusive design features across all infrastructure; (ii) affirmative measures to enhance women’s safe mobility such as ‘women only coaches’, mobile applications for women’s security, instruction boards with helpline numbers and color-coded directional signs; (iii) designing and piloting special initiatives such as priority e-ticketing counters for the elderly and differently abled, separate ticketing counters and vending machines for women, reporting desks to address incidents of harassment, assigned quota allocated for commercial spaces in metro stations for enterprises owned by or operated by women and establishment of an all-women staff metro station.

Stakeholder Engagement, Consultations, and Information Disclosure. Consultations for public and identified Project Affected Persons (PAPs) have been undertaken during the surveys and preparation of the EIA, SIA/RP and ESDD. The consultations will be continued during the Project implementation. Multi-lingual information brochures, providing information on social issues concerning the PAPs, have been specifically prepared and distributed. The EIA, SIA/RP and ESDD in English and summaries in local language (Marathi language) have been disclosed by the MMRDA on its website and in hard copies in the Project areas. This documentation has also been disclosed on AIIB’s website.

Labor and Working Conditions and Community Health and Safety. During construction and operation, OHS issues include, but not limited to, exposure to noise and vibration; working at heights; electrical hazards; physical, chemical, and biological hazards; rail safety; life and fire safety; and water and sanitation in worker camps among others. For the already completed sections of the civil works component, an OHS Audit will be initiated by MMRDA, with AIIB input in TOR, and for any corrective actions MMRDA has agreed to abide. On community health and safety (CHS) during construction, issues include, but not limited to, worker influx, structural safety for trespassers on rail lines and other Project facilities, and potential issues with Project security personnel among others. During operation, potential issues include, but are not limited to, exposure to noise and vibration, general rail operational safety, life and fire safety, and potential issues with Project security personnel. Mitigation measures to address impacts to OHS and CHS are covered in the EMP.

Project Grievance Redress Mechanism (GRM) and ES Monitoring. Appropriate Project level GRMs are in place to accept, address and resolve grievances related to execution of works and labor, land acquisition and resettlement and rehabilitation of affected households and business establishments. The information of established GRM together with AIIB’s Project-affected Peoples Mechanism (PPM) has been disclosed. MMRDA is implementing many Metro projects simultaneously and has internal monitoring and supervision mechanism operated through the Project Implementation Unit (PIU). The land acquisition and resettlement and rehabilitation are implemented and routinely monitored internally by the LA&RR Implementation Unit of the Metro PIU. Further, MMRDA will engage External Monitoring Agency to monitor environmental and social outcomes, including RP implementation. MMRDA will produce quarterly progress reports of ES instruments based on agreed format, which will be shared with AIIB. AIIB will monitor the project’s E&S management performance during its implementation support missions.


Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank

Jawad Bentabet

Investment Operations Specialist – Transport sector


The OPEC Fund for International Development

Driss Belamine

Country Manager, Asia and the Pacific, Public Sector Operations


Republic of India

Dr. Prasanna V. Salian

Deputy Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance


Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (Implementing Agency)

Mr. Sushil Chandra

Director (Systems), Metro PIU (Systems)

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